Ravi Gadepalli

Document Type


Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - paratransit, planning - surveys, planning - integration, ridership - demand


Public transport, paratransit, travel demand, mobility


Public transport services in India and many other developing countries are provided by a combination of formal-Government led public transport systems and informal paratransit or Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) systems, which offer shuttle services along high demand corridors with passengers boarding and alighting at multiple points. Despite limited Government support, paratransit systems continue to thrive in many cities serving a crucial shared mobility need of users, without which cities would have more private vehicle usage. Due to their informal nature and the perceived competition to formal public transport systems, they have traditionally been either excluded from the public transport planning processes or designed as a feeder service to the formal transit system. The current thesis recognises paratransit’s role in serving end to end travel demand needs, particularly in developing economies with limited public transport supply and not just being a feeder to the formal public transport system. Hence, we develop an integrated planning framework that enables formal and informal public transport systems to operate as complementary systems towards meeting the mobility needs of the city.

We proved an integrated planning framework based on comprehensive understanding of the demand and supply characteristics of both formal and informal systems which currently operate independently to realign services and complement each other. The tactical planning stage of public transport planning i.e. frequency setting was identified as the ideal stage of planning for integration of the two types of services. This will ensure continuity of their existing route networks and at the same time allow for paratransit services’ flexibility to switch operations between routes. Visakhapatnam, a representative medium sized Indian city with a significant presence of formal public transport in the form of city bus services and paratransit services provided by three-wheeler auto-rickshaws with a seating capacity of three to six passengers, was selected as the case city to demonstrate the methodology.

A household survey based data collection and analysis methodology was adopted to analyse the socio-economic and travel demand characteristics of city bus and paratransit users. The variables impacting users’ choice between these two systems were derived through binary logistic regression. The high frequency and low occupancy paratransit systems were more popular among shorter trips, while longer trips preferred the fixed table bus systems.

The operational characteristics of bus and paratransit systems were derived through a combination of primary surveys with paratransit operators and secondary data on the city bus operations. Data regarding their network of operation, services offered, passenger demand and revenue generated were collected for analysis. Buses perform a service function in the city by operating throughout the day and on a wider network, while paratransit operates with a profit motive only on high demand corridors and during peak hours. A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based methodology was adopted to compare the performance efficiency of the two systems using a set of input and output indicators that define the performance of the two systems. Paratransit operations were identified to be more efficient compared to buses, due to their demand responsive operations. The lower efficiency of buses was also due to their service obligation to the city to provide affordable services throughout the day, even in areas with low demand.

A bi-level transit assignment and frequency optimisation framework is developed to integrate formal bus and paratransit services. The lower-level of the model solves for the multi- modal transit assignment problem while the upper level solves for the integrated frequency optimisation problem. The transit assignment problem was solved from the users perspective i.e. to minimise their travel time through the user-equilibrium method. The frequency optimisation problem was solved using an integer programming formulation with the objective of minimising operational cost of bus and paratransit systems while meeting constraints like the travel demand on any link.

The outputs from the optimisation exercise were used to quantify the impact of the public transport system at various levels i.e. users total travel time spent in the system, operators cost of providing the services and the overall impact on the society by estimating its road space requirement and emissions. Alternative user demand and transit supply scenarios were tested to assess their impacts on the society. The results show significant operational cost benefits of an integrated transit assignment and frequency planning approach where paratransit provides demand responsive services for short distance trips while formal public transport provides fixed schedule services on with broader network coverage.

The analysis established the complimentary role played by bus and paratransit systems in meeting users travel demands. Therefore, it is recommended that cities harness both the systems towards meeting increasing travel needs of developing economies. Formal transit will continue to be the core of the public transport system, providing fixed route services, while paratransit can augment its capacity on high demand corridors and during peak hours. The planning and frequency optimisation framework developed in this thesis can help cities in identifying the modal-mix of fixed route public transport and on-demand services.


Permission to publish has been given by the Author, Ravi Gadepalli.