The perception of service quality among paratransit users in Metro Manila using structural equations modelling (SEM) approach

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - subway/metro, mode - other, ridership - perceptions, planning - service improvement, planning - service quality, planning - surveys, planning - methods


Public transport, Paratransit, Service quality, Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Structural equations modelling (SEM)


Paratransit, in this paper, refers to the informal modes operating in the urban transport system of Metro Manila with the dominance of public utility jeepneys. In the context of Asian developing countries, paratransit are generally presented as public transport services that do not fit with the idea of a modern urban public transport system but they also serve as flexible public transport modes in response to inadequate mass transit system. There is plenty of scope for improving such paratransit services in Metro Manila but strategies should be informed by a thorough understanding of the needs of public transport users from a service quality perspective. Moreover, there is a need for urgent reforms in view of declining share of public transport and the drastic increase in private car use, as well as, the increasing social cost of traffic congestion. A pilot public transport service quality survey was conducted at the University of the Philippines campus. Using exploratory factor analysis and structural equations modelling, the perception of service quality was analyzed based on seven (7) factors, namely, vehicle condition, customer care, reliability, stop's condition, information, convenience, and availability.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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