Can multi-modal integration provide enhanced public transport service provision to address the needs of vulnerable populations?

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, place - rural, policy - equity, planning - integration, planning - service improvement


Public transport, Inclusion, Demographics, Geographies, Flexible public transport


This paper examines the challenges associated with provision of effective transport services to the ‘mobility poor’ and identifies potential methods to overcome these challenges. “Prioritised area” types representing a mix of geographies and population types, in addition to the multi-dimensional influences of mobility access, equity, and provision are identified, based upon the literature reviewed and information from transport providers, authorities and agencies. Supply side considerations are reviewed before turning to the potential ways for mitigating identified gaps in the requirements of prioritised areas, with particular reference to new models of transport service provision, technological solutions, and various modal and multi-modal solutions. The findings show that more flexible and integrated public transport solutions are being explored by cities, regions and service providers to address the constraints of more conventional models. Flexibility in such services is in the form of geographic, temporal, or vehicle flexibility. These are complemented by the opinion of experts as to the way forward for providing more tailored services for vulnerable users. Despite challenges, the paper identifies some promising service options for travellers in both rural and urban environments; however, any successful service must be underpinned by a robust, multi-modal transport network in order for that promise to be realised.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Research in Transportation Economics Home Page: