Fare evasion correction for smartcard-based origin-destination matrices

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - south america, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - subway/metro, planning - methods, planning - surveys, technology - ticketing systems, ridership - behaviour


Fare evasion, OD matrices, Public transport


Origin-Destination matrices obtained from smartcard data are very valuable because they contain vast amounts of information and can be obtained at a very low cost. However, they can only account for trips paid by smartcard. Trips paid by other means, as well as non-paid trips, must be incorporated using additional information. This paper discusses the biases that are introduced due to fare evasion and presents a sequential method to estimate correction factors due to partial evasion in some trip stages, as well as total fare evasion in all trip stages, using external information regarding trips not registered in the smartcard database. We apply this method to the case of Santiago, Chile, where partial evasion (during a bus trip stage prior to a Metro trip stage) and total evasion (during all bus-only trip stages) are relevant fare evasion situations. Information from the Santiago Metro Origin-Destination survey and from external fare evasion measurements is used. The results indicate a 5% partial evasion rate for bus trip stages prior to Metro trip stages, and a 37% total fare evasion rate for bus-only trips. This paper is a contribution towards establishing new methods to feasibly obtain OD matrices through the adequate merging of automatically-collected data with complementary traditional measurements and survey instruments.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them


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