Understanding the Role of Cycling to Urban Transit Stations through a Simultaneous Access Mode and Station Choice Model

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - tram/light rail, place - europe, place - urban, ridership - mode choice, ridership - behaviour, planning - integration, planning - methods


Access, Alternatives analysis, Bicycling, Choice models, Mode choice, Rail transit stations, Sustainable transportation, Travel behavior, Urban areas


Governments worldwide are aiming to increase sustainable mode use to increase sustainability, livability, and accessibility. Integration of bicycle and transit can increase catchment areas of transit compared with walking and thus provide better competition to non-sustainable modes. To achieve this, effective measures have to be designed that require a better understanding of the factors influencing access mode and station choice. At the national/regional level this has been thoroughly studied, but there is a knowledge gap at the urban level. This study aims to investigate which factors influence the joint decision for tram access mode and tram station choice. The joint investigation can identify trade-offs between the access and transit journeys. Furthermore, the effect of each factor on the bicycle catchment area is investigated. Using data from tram travelers in The Hague, Netherlands, a joint simultaneous discrete choice model is estimated. Generally, walking is preferred to cycling. The findings of this study suggest that access distance is one of the main factors for explaining the choice, where walking distance is weighted 2.1 times cycling distance. Frequent cyclists are more likely also to cycle to the tram station, whereas frequent tram users are less inclined to cycle. Bicycle parking facilities increase the cycling catchment area by 234 m. The transit journey time has the largest impact on the catchment area of cyclists. Improvements to the system, such as fewer stops, higher frequency (like light rail transit), or both, therefore would result in a much longer accepted cycling distance.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.