Evaluating the effects of environmental factors and a transfer fare discount policy on the performance of an urban metro system

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, mode - subway/metro, land use - urban design, planning - service improvement, planning - integration, operations - capacity, operations - performance, policy - fares


Transport policy, Environmental factors, Shared inputs, Performance, Mixed network data envelopment analysis


This study presents a mixed network data envelopment analysis (MNDEA) model with shared resources, a two-stage network, and parallel structures integration developed through the application of directional distance function theory. Environmental factors and a transport policy are introduced into the model to assess the effects on the efficiency and effectiveness of an urban metro system and associated subsystems. Using data from a metro system between 2005 and 2015, a case study is conducted. Following the inclusion of subsystem area population density data and transfer ridership constraints, indications from the MNDEA model suggest that a service technology change could lead to improvements to the metro system and associated subsystems. By contrast, the inclusion of a car ownership variable does not appear to influence the production technology of the metro system and associated subsystems over the same analysis period. The results lend support to the notion that the proposed model could be used to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of urban metro systems and associated subsystems simultaneously. The model also enables the determination of the ratios of shared inputs across production and service processes. The proposed model includes the non-storable services, multi-product, and multi-capacity system features of the metro system. The MNDEA model could enable operators to gain valuable insight into the performance of metro systems and associated subsystems, which in turn could enable the development of improvements. The proposed model could also be applied to analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of the “route-based” or multi-modal aspects of public transport.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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