Institute of Transportation Engineers Guidelines versus Actual Trip and Parking Generation for a Transit-Oriented Development in an Auto-Oriented Region

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - north america, place - urban, mode - bike, mode - bus, mode - car, mode - rail, mode - pedestrian, mode - park and ride, land use - transit oriented development, land use - planning, planning - methods


Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), Trip, Parking, auto-oriented TOD


The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) guidelines serve as the most widely used reference for trip and parking generation estimates for any new development in the U.S.A. However, recent empirical studies question the efficacy of ITE guidelines in forecasting trip and parking generation in transit-oriented developments (TODs). Following the methodology of studies on seven TODs across the U.S.A., this study focuses on Dallas (TX), as a more auto-oriented American city, to explore the trip and parking generation at Mockingbird TOD. It finds that, with the exception of Station Park in Salt Lake City (which is really a transit-adjacent development rather than a TOD), the Mockingbird TOD has the lowest walk mode share (13.6%), the lowest bike mode share (0.22%), the lowest bus transit mode share (1.09%), and by far the lowest rail transit mode share (5.9%) of all the other seven TODs. Similarly, the Mockingbird TOD ranks first in relation to the driving mode share, with about 80% of its daily trips generated by driving. This is almost twice as many driving trips as the average of the other six TODs, which makes Mockingbird an auto-oriented TOD located in an auto-oriented region where more than 96% of commuting trips are by automobile. Still, the total automobile trip generation rate in Mockingbird is about 12% lower than the ITE estimates. Similarly, while the parking supply in Mockingbird TOD is less than 48% of the ITE recommended supply rate, its peak parking occupancy is only about 55% of the TOD supply.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.