Transit-oriented development (TOD) typologies around metro station areas in urban China: A comparative analysis of five typical megacities for planning implications

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - subway/metro, land use - transit oriented development, land use - planning, planning - integration


TOD, Node–place model, Land use and transport integration, Typology, Metro station areas


Transit-oriented development (TOD), which is regarded as an efficient planning strategy for urban sustainability, has surged in use across the globe in the recent past. While the lessons learned from case studies of individual cities can provide valuable references, they also result in a gap between existing theoretical principles and actual planning practices. The comparative analysis of TOD typologies among cities affords unique strengths for addressing such a challenge. By extending the classic ‘node–place’ model with a third dimension, this paper first constructs a ‘node–functionality–place’ model in the form of a magic cube as the theoretical basis for classifying TOD typologies. Then, the model is applied to five typical Chinese megacities, namely, Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Wuhan and Hangzhou. After establishing an indicator system, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine the TOD degree, and a two-step cluster is employed to classify TOD typologies. The results show that the TOD degree, although it varies with cities, presents a similar spatial pattern, with a general tendency to decline from the central core to the outskirts. In total, six TOD types are distinguished and present notable variations within and across the five megacities. The identified TOD typologies thus equip urban planners and policymakers with a useful tool for designing more targeted strategies. The discoveries made in the comparative context differ from those made in the individual context in prior studies. This paper is thus believed to make a new contribution to the existing TOD literature.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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