Efficiency Based Evaluation of Public Transport and Paratransit Systems with a View to Integrating Transportation

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, place - asia, operations - coordination, operations - performance, planning - methods, planning - route design, planning - integration


Evaluation, Multimodal transportation, Paratransit services, Public transit, Quality of service, Sustainable transportation


Rapid urbanization, increasing population, and a booming economy have stimulated growth in Indian cites, resulting in higher levels of dependence on private vehicles. This has raised serious issues over the sustainability of transport infrastructure in cities. Public transportation (PT) systems can help achieve sustainable transportation. But they face competition from intermediate public transport (IPT) or Paratransit. The existing PT and IPT systems, therefore, need to re-plan their operations to complement each other and deliver a wider network of services. To achieve this, an evaluation of both PT and IPT systems at microscopic levels is needed to facilitate their possible integration in a coordinated multimodal transportation system. The present paper attempts to evaluate the public and paratransit systems in the city of Surat in the Indian state of Gujarat using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique in DEAP software at the individual and system level. The operations, route design, and cost efficiency of both systems are evaluated to understand how well the existing set-up caters to demand. The arithmetic mean of operations, route design, and cost efficiencies of 26 routes of PT system were worked out to be 0.89, 0.94, and 0.69, while that of the 13 routes of the IPT system were 0.92, 0.97, and 0.88 respectively. The system investigation shows that analytically, only 8% of IPT routes were inefficient in all the three aspects, compared with 42% of PT routes. The performance of each route was analyzed, appropriate suggestions made, and the potential of these systems for designing an integrated transport system highlighted.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.