Machine learning prediction models for battery-electric bus energy consumption in transit

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, planning - methods, infrastructure - vehicle


battery-electric buses (BEB), energy consumption


The energy consumption (EC) of battery-electric buses (BEB) varies significantly due to the intertwined relationships of vehicular, operational, topological, and external parameters. This variation is posing several challenges to predict BEB’s energy consumption. Several studies are calling for the development of data-driven models to address this challenge. This study develops and compares seven data-driven modelling techniques that cover both machine learning and statistical models. The models are based on a full-factorial experimental design (n = 907,199) of a validated Simulink energy simulation model. The models are then used to predict EC using a testing dataset (n = 169,344). The results show some minor discrepancies between the developed models. All models explained more than 90% of the energy consumption variance. Further, the results indicate that road gradient and the battery state of charge are the most influential factors on EC, while driver behaviour and drag coefficient have the lowest impact.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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