Microscopic energy consumption modelling of electric buses: model development, calibration, and validation

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, technology - alternative fuels, planning - methods


electric buses (e-Buses), energy consumption model


In this paper a microscopic energy consumption model of electric buses (e-Buses) is developed, leveraging on a vast data collection campaign of e-Bus daily operations. The model is composed of two modules, which estimate the instantaneous power required for traction and the average power required by the auxiliary systems. The model simulates the instantaneous energy consumption as a function of line and vehicle characteristics, and operating conditions including ambient temperature, bus load and encountered traffic. The model was calibrated against trajectory data from 435 trips, showing an error in reproducing the instantaneous battery state-of-charge of 5.5% in 95% of experiments (2.5% on average). A two-level model validation was performed against data from 110 trips. At a microscopic level, results proved that the calibrated model is robust against variability of line operating conditions. At a macroscopic level, the model was validated against the macroscopic speed-consumption function, showing an error of 6%.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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