Factors of acceptability, acceptance and usage for non-rail autonomous public transport vehicles: A systematic literature review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

literature review - literature review, mode - other


Autonomous vehicle, Autonomous shuttle, Public transit, Willingness to use, User needs


Non-rail autonomous public transport vehicles have emerged over the last few years. Technical progress in automation has resulted in a growing number of autonomous shuttle pilot experiments. Although these systems are technologically feasible, determining the extent to which they correspond to users’ needs and expectations remains a major issue. In order to answer that question, we conducted a systematic review which synthesizes the literature regarding the acceptability and willingness to use this type of autonomous public transport. This literature review allowed us to identify 39 documents addressing 70 factors of acceptability, acceptance and usage of non-rail autonomous public transport vehicles. The most cited factors in the literature concern service characteristics (times, schedules, fares) and safety issues (road-safety, on-board security). Factors related to automation level, comfort and access to the vehicle feature appear to a lesser extent. Acceptance is also related to personal factors, such as socio-demographics, travel habits, and personality. This review could be of interest to designers and manufacturers of non-rail autonomous public transport vehicles, as well as policy makers, and assist with the successful implementation of autonomous public transport services which are better adapted and meet the needs of all potential users.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part F Home Page: