Incorporating Low-Stress Bicycling Connectivity into Expanded Transit Service Coverage

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, place - north america, operations - service span, land use - planning, planning - surveys, ridership - disadvantage


transit service coverage, first-and-last mile (F&LM), accessibility


The speed advantage in bicycling over walking is believed to ease first-and-last mile (F&LM) travel and expand transit service coverage. To quantitatively investigate the potential effect of using bicycle as a F&LM connector, the paper measures and compares the impacts of walking and bicycling F&LM access on transit service coverage. In the estimation of transit service coverage, F&LM travel decay functions representing the attractiveness of public transit that declines with increasing walking/biking time to access transit facilities and the spatial boundaries of transit catchment areas are developed using GPS trajectory data collected from the latest Cincinnati Household Travel Survey in Hamilton County, Ohio. Level of traffic stress is used to evaluate the bicycle suitability of streets and bike network connectivity. Based on the F&LM distance decay functions and low-stress bike network connectivity, the transit service coverage area as well as the transit-served population and employment in Hamilton County, Ohio, are estimated. Results show that more population can reach transit services and therefore employment by bicycling than walking. Meanwhile, disadvantaged groups, that is, low-income and zero-car population, can be better served by transit if using bicycle as the F&LM connector. In addition, low-stress bicycling connectivity is a significant factor determining the bicycle-transit service coverage, and a well-connected low-stress bike network with quality bikeways is crucial to guaranteeing that. These findings can be used as references to assist planners in their decision-making process to achieve better mobility and accessibility.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.