Associations between built environment, perceived walkability/bikeability and metro transfer patterns

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

land use - impacts, land use - urban design, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian, mode - subway/metro, place - asia, place - urban, planning - integration, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, ridership - modelling, ridership - perceptions


Metro-active modes integration, Random parameter model, Land use, Perceived walkability and bikeability, Transfer patterns


Most studies that address the integration of active modes (i.e., walking and bicycling) and public transit tend to focus on either transfer distance or feeder mode choice. Few articles have reported the relationships between the built environment (D-variables) and transfer patterns (e.g., transfer distance and mode choice) in a single study. Furthermore, only very few studies accounted for travelers’ judgements of walkability and/or bikeability and distinguished between access and egress trips. This paper fills these gaps in the literature using data collected in Nanjing, China. A random parameter Tobit and a random parameter multinomial logistic model are estimated to investigate respectively (i) the association of perceived walkability/bikeability and features of the built environment in metro catchment areas on walking/bicycling distance of access/egress trips and (ii) the probability of choosing active modes as transfer modes. The modeling results reveal that perceived walkability/bikeability and features of the built environment are more significantly correlated with mode choice behavior than with transfer distance. Moreover, walking/bicycling distance and access/egress mode choice tend to be strongly associated with perceived walkability and bikeability as well as with features of the built environment. The results are helpful in deepening urban planners and policymakers’ understanding of how to design built environments that maximize the integration of active modes and metro.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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