Changes in car and bus usage amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Relationship with land use and land price

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, mode - car, place - asia, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, land use - impacts


Travel behavior, COVID-19, Trip chain, Land use, Land price, Mixed-effect regression


This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on car and bus usage and their relationships with land use and land price. Large-scale trip data of car and bus usage in Daejeon, South Korea, were tested. We made a trip-chain-level data set to analyze travel behavior based on activity-based travel volumes. Hexagonal cells were used to capture geographical explanatory variables, and a mixed-effect regression model was adopted to determine the impacts of COVID-19. The modeling outcomes demonstrated behavioral differences associated with using cars and buses amid the pandemic. People responded to the pandemic by reducing their trips more intensively during the daytime and weekends. Moreover, they avoided crowded or shared spaces by reducing bus trips and trips toward commercial areas. In terms of social equity, trips of people living in wealthier areas decreased more than those of people living in lower-priced areas, especially trips by buses. The findings contribute to the previous literature by adding a fundamental reference for the different impacts of pandemics on two universal transportation modes.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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