Before-and-after evaluation of a bus network improvement using performance indicators from historical smart card data

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - south america, place - urban, technology - geographic information systems, technology - passenger information, ridership - demand, planning - methods, planning - service improvement


Public transport, Before and after, Bus network, Smart card, Origin destination matrix


This paper describes a methodology for assessing before-and-after benefits for residents in an urban area resulting from the implementation of a major bus network improvement. The new late-night bus network of the city of São Paulo, Brazil is used as a case study. A group of supply and demand performance indicators is proposed in order to evaluate changes on all network levels. Accessibility analyses are conducted to evaluate how changes in the supply side potentially impact easiness of reaching destinations, while an analysis of the demand side response is performed by comparing changes in origin and destination transit trip volumes in a three-year period using historical smart card and GPS data, as well as differences in average travel times and number of transfers per trip within the network.


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