A review of public transport transfer coordination at the tactical planning phase

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

planning - service level, planning - service improvement, planning - integration, operations - scheduling, operations - coordination, infrastructure - interchange/transfer, literature review


Public transport, Transfer coordination, Timetable, Synchronization, Transfer optimization, Connectivity


While transferring between public transport services has a negative impact on the level-of-service, it is an inevitable feature of public transport networks. Transfer coordination can help reduce passenger transfer waiting times and improve service connectivity. In this paper, we systematically review the literature on transfer coordination design in public transport systems. First, four solution approaches for solving the transfer coordination design problem (TCDP) are identified and reviewed in detail, namely heuristic rule-based, analytical modelling, mathematical programming, and simulation. We then identify and review three extensions of the TCDP, i.e., considering first or last train transfer optimization, integrating vehicle scheduling, and incorporating passenger demand assignment. Finally, following the synthesis of the literature, some promising future research directions are outlined. This paper provides comprehensive insights on how to better design coordinated transfers to provide a seamless travel experience and improve the service connectivity of public transport networks.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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