Complement or compete? The effects of shared electric scooters on bus ridership

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, mode - other, place - north america, place - urban, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice, planning - integration


Shared Electric Scooters, Bus Ridership, Micromobility, E-scooter, Transit


The rapid onset of shared electric scooters (e-scooters) has raised questions about their effects on other transportation modes, particularly sustainable modes such as transit. Existing literature concerning the impacts of e-scooters on transit ridership showed that e-scooters could both compete or complement transit. However, prior studies did not differentiate by e-scooter trip purpose. This study aims to fill this gap using Nashville, Tennessee, as a case study. The results of modeling more than 1.4 million e-scooter trips suggest that on a typical weekday, utilitarian e-scooter trips are associated with a 0.94% decrease in bus ridership. However, social e-scooter trips are associated with weekday bus ridership increases of 0.86%. The net effect of e-scooters on weekday bus ridership is estimated to be −0.08%, which is nearly zero. These findings can help inform city planners as they integrate micromobility into urban transportation systems.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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