Impacts of electrifying public transit on the electricity grid, from regional to state level analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, mode - bus, mode - ferry, technology - alternative fuels, technology - emissions, infrastructure - vehicle


Electric Vehicle, Electric bus, Electric ferry, Public transportation network, Energy demand, EV charging demand


Battery electrified public transit (BEPT), including buses and passenger ferries, is a promising solution to transport-related climate emissions and urban air pollution, but introduces potentially challenging large, coincident demand in the low-voltage distribution network. This paper presents a tool for estimating the energy and charging demand of electrified public transit using public data that is available in over 150 cities/states globally and demonstrates it in two case studies. The tool applies heuristic vehicle scheduling to existing public General Transit Feed Specification data to model the charging profiles and electricity consumption of BEPT for various charging regimes across different geographical scales. For the case study of New South Wales, Australia, the impacts of BEPT are most significant at the low-voltage network, where adding a battery-electric bus depot was found to increase the annual critical peak demand at the local zone substation in Summer by up to 17% while exacerbating demand during the daily evening peak period by 20–30%. Across the entire state of NSW, a full transition to BEPT increases annual electricity consumption by 1.28–1.34% and peak daily demand by 1–3%.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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