Public transport equity in Shenyang: Using structural equation modelling

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, planning - service improvement, planning - service quality, planning - public consultation, planning - methods, policy - equity, policy - fares, policy - social exclusion


Transport and social equity, Urban transport policies, Public transport, Structural equation modelling, Shenyang


In China, with the rapid development of urbanisation, the contradiction between supply and demand has become increasingly severe, particularly in large and medium-sized cities. Improving public transport equity can help to reduce the social exclusion of lower-income and socially vulnerable groups in relation to the urban transport system, and guarantee that public transport systems are given priority in terms of development. Using the concept of transport-related social equity, this study aims to explore the effects of public transport equity in relation to the quality of public transport, public participation, and public transport-related policy using Shenyang as a case study. Data are analysed using Structural Equation Model (SEM). Our findings show that the three latent variables of accessibility, affordability, and social impacts can be seen as representing the main characteristics of public transport equity; while improvements in public transport quality, public participation, and public transport-related polices play a significant role in reducing public transport inequity. Moreover, the findings indicate that public participation has direct, significant, positive influences on public transport quality and public transport-related policies. In terms of policy implications, we suggest that policies designed to improve public transport service quality, extend public transport fare concessions, and promote public participation in the public transport policy decision-making process should be given priority in the next round of urban comprehensive planning in order to reduce public transport-related social inequity in Shenyang and China more generally.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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