User adoption of integrated mobility technologies: The case of multimodal trip-planning apps in Turkey

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - urban, ridership - attitudes, ridership - behaviour, ridership - perceptions, planning - integration, planning - surveys


Technology adoption, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Multimodal trip-planning app, Integrated mobility, Mobility as a Service (MaaS)


Integrated mobility has become a vision to be achieved in sustainable urban transport. Multimodal trip-planning apps, which are at the core of many integrated urban mobility technologies, have increasingly become popular among public transport users. This paper aims to identify antecedents affecting attitudes and behavioral intention to use multimodal trip-planning apps, reveal the relationship between the factors, and measure the factors' effects on the attitude and behavioral intention to use the apps employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Data was collected from 302 users of multimodal trip-planning apps using an online survey. The findings of SEM analysis demonstrated that attitude and social influence are the most important constructs that directly affect the behavioral intention to use the apps. Another significant empirical finding is that perceived mobility is one of the determinants of the TAM's two primary constructs (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness) and a strong predictor of the attitude in the context of multimodal trip-planning apps. The research contributes to the literature on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) research by confirming the attitude construct's central role, neglected in TAM2, TAM3, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), UTAUT2, and many proposed models determining behavioral intention. This research and the findings can serve as a baseline by which developers of integrated urban mobility technologies can make strategic decisions about adopting these technologies.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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