Electrification of a bus system with fast charging stations: Impact of battery degradation on design decisions

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, mode - bus, planning - methods, planning - network design, infrastructure - station, infrastructure - maintainance


Electrification of bus systems, Network design, Battery degradation, Charging policies, Mixed-integer linear problem


In this paper, we evaluate the cost of the electrification of an existing bus network. We propose a family of bi-objective mathematical models to demonstrate the trade-off between strategic (i.e., battery sizing and the locations of charging stations) and operational decisions (i.e., battery degradation). The proposed mathematical models investigate different charging policies and measure their impacts on overall cost. Battery degradation is estimated by a tailored and linearized semi-empirical approach and is explicitly incorporated in the proposed mixed-integer linear models. The impact of different charging policies on reducing the overall costs is evaluated for a bus network in Rotterdam. The results show that allowing for flexibility in the loss of energy levels at each bus cycle results in savings up to 17% in battery aging.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part C Home Page: