Operation performance of tram lanes with intermittent priority with the coexistence of regular and automatic vehicles

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - tram/light rail, mode - car, infrastructure - bus/tram lane, infrastructure - bus/tram priority, policy - congestion, place - urban, operations - performance, operations - traffic


Cellular automata model, coexistence of regular and automatic vehicles, no-entrance distance, tram lanes with intermittent priority


Providing exclusive right of way for trams in road sections is one of management strategies to improve the operation efficiency of urban public transportation systems. However, the availability of lanes for private cars will inevitably be decreased, which results in congestions. In order to find a balance between tram priority and traffic operational efficiency, a new improved-management strategy for tram lanes with intermittent priority (TLIP) is presented in this paper. The proposed TLIP management schema utilizes the clear distance and no-entrance distance metrics for improved management strategies. A three-lane cellular automata (CA) model is developed based on NaSch model, with lane-changing rules updated. A series of simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of TLIP management when regular vehicles (RVs) and automatic vehicles (AVs) coexist. Our simulation results show an increase of 60% in private cars’ average velocity with the use of TLIP management, when the occupancy of private car lanes is 0.4, AVs and RVs equally share the road and trams depart every 2mins. Moreover, to prevent the impact on the tram operation, larger clearance distance and no-entrance distance are required for RVs compared to AVs. Generally, when trams depart every 2mins, TLIP management is effective when the occupancy of private car lanes is with (0.25, 0.5). Meanwhile, if trams depart every 1 min, TLIP has no effect when the occupancy exceeds 0.45.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.