Modeling the competitiveness of a bike-sharing system using bicycle GPS and transit smartcard data

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bike, mode - bus, place - asia, technology - geographic information systems, technology - passenger information, ridership - modelling


Competitiveness, public transport, bike-sharing, logistic regression model, mobility as a service, integrated multimodal transportation system


Competitiveness is an important factor for the sustainable mobility of an integrated multimodal system. In this study, we explore and answer the question concerning what makes bike-sharing trips more competitive than bus trips. The empirical analysis is conducted using transit smartcard and bike-sharing GPS data collected in Seoul, and logistic regression models were developed to understand the factors contributing to the bike-sharing being more competitive than buses. The findings demonstrate that bike-sharing is not only a complementary mode but could also be competing with buses at certain extents. The results indicate that bike-sharing trips can be more competitive than bus trips with longer detours or when the speed of the bus is reduced, such as peak-time periods and short trips. Travel time of bike-sharing is more reliable than bus’s during peak times, while the bike lanes contribute to keeping bike-sharing more competitive even during off-peak times.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.