Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - traffic, infrastructure - stop, planning - safety/accidents, mode - bus, mode - pedestrian


Width, Uncontrolled left turn channel, Traffic volume, Traffic signal phases, Traffic control, Stop (Public transportation), Speed limits, Singapore, Signalized intersections, Signalised intersections, Sight distance, Sideways collisions, Sideswiping accidents, Side impact collisions, Side collisions, Road design, Rear end collisions, Pedestrian refuge, Medians, Median strips, Highway design, Geometric design, Central reserves, Cameras, Bus stops, Adaptive systems, Adaptive control, Accident data


Studies dealing with the effect of road geometry on accidents by vehicle maneuvers have been reported, mostly for western countries and a few for Asia. However, no such studies have been reported for Singapore. Traffic accidents arising from head-to-side and head-to-rear maneuvers at four-legged signalized intersections in Singapore were investigated. Based on accident data at intersections in the southwestern part of Singapore from 1992 to 1999, the factors affecting such accidents were explored using zero-altered probability models. Specific roadway geometrics as well as traffic control and regulatory factors that influence the two categories of accidents were identified. It was found that head-to-side accidents tend to decrease if there is an adjacent intersection within 200 m and if bus stops along the approach are provided with bays. On the other hand, longer sight distances and the presence of a pedestrian refuge tend to increase this type of accident. Higher speed limits were found to reduce the instances of zero head-to-side accidents. It was also found that head-to-rear accidents decrease when the intersections are under adaptive signal control but increase when surveillance cameras are present. There is also some evidence to suggest that the presence of an uncontrolled left-turn channel, the existence of medians wider than 2 m, higher approach volumes, and more phases per cycle all contribute to higher instances of accidents by both maneuver types.