UK battery electric bus operation: Examining battery degradation, carbon emissions and cost

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - europe, place - urban, technology - alternative fuels, technology - emissions, economics - operating costs, infrastructure - vehicle


Electric buses, Battery degradation, Vehicle modelling, Carbon dioxide emissions, Cost


This paper examines the impact of geographical location on the energy consumption of double deck battery electric buses operating in four UK cities. By considering seasonal variation in ambient temperature and an assumed battery degradation process, the implications on operational cost and carbon emissions were investigated. Using a MATLAB/Simulink model the total energy demand of a vehicle operating on the UKBC was simulated. Energy consumption was combined with hourly seasonal averages of carbon intensity (gCO2/kWh) and wholesale electricity costs (£) to assess charging at different times of the day and year. At the beginning of life, the range could decrease by up to 17.3% due to heating load requirements. From beginning of life to end of life, range was predicted to decrease by up to 26%. Whilst the average operational costs are relatively consistent across the four regions, the average carbon emissions can be five times higher depending on location.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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