What travel modes do shared e-scooters displace? A review of recent research findings

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

literature review - literature review, mode - car, mode - other, planning - integration


E-scooters, Micromobility, Mode substitution, Car use, Transportation planning


The impacts of shared e-scooters on modal shifts have received increased attention in recent years. This study provides a review of the literature for modal shifts in the US and other countries. The profile of shared e-scooter users is rather similar to that of station-based and free-floating bikeshare programs. The empirical data reveal that people use shared e-scooters in place of cars at substantial rates, especially in many US cities, which suggests that in many locations shared e-scooters may be a good strategy for reducing car dependence. The use of shared e-scooters as a complement to public transit varies highly by city, highlighting how technology, regulations, and incentives may be needed in some cities to ensure modal integration and harvest the potential societal benefits from the introduction of shared e-scooters.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.