Long-term charging infrastructure deployment and bus fleet transition considering seasonal differences

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - maintainance, technology - alternative fuels, technology - emissions, economics - operating costs


charging infrastructure, battery capacities, bus electrification


The innovations in battery technologies facilitate worldwide bus electrification, which can conserve energy and reduce emissions. This paper studies the long-term bus electrification that simultaneously optimizes the charging infrastructure deployment and bus fleet transition. The seasonal differences associated with battery capacities, bus lines, and bus timetables are considered. The studied problem is modeled as a mixed-integer linear programming formulation, in which the detailed charging schedules are determined to give the charging location and charging time. The objective minimizes both the cost and emissions. The proposed formulation is tested on a real-world case study. The computational results indicate that replacing DPBs with BEBs can save 17.8% of total cost and decrease 39.3% of carbon dioxide emission. Compared with designing a plan for each period separately, implementing long-term bus electrification can save 13.5% of total cost and 21.7% of operational cost. Moreover, the benefits of implementing long-term bus electrification are more remarkable when the planning horizon is longer.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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