Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

operations - capacity, planning - service quality, land use - planning, ridership - drivers, ridership - growth, policy - fares, organisation - management, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - bike, mode - pedestrian


Urban growth, Transportation planning, Through highways, Thoroughfares, Thorofares, Service quality, Quality of service, Pedestrians, Passenger service quality, Management, Main roads, Level of service, Intracity bus transportation, Highway Capacity Manual, Florida, Cyclists, Bus transit, Boulevards, Bicyclists, Bicycle riders, Automobile drivers, Arterial streets, Arterial highways


Methods of determining the level of service (LOS) to scheduled fixed-route bus users, pedestrians, and bicyclists on arterials and through vehicles are presented. The research is based on LOS research for the individual modes and uses a comprehensive arterial approach based on research conducted in Florida. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) developed a multimodal LOS analysis process to measure and provide mobility for diverse roadway users. In 1999 the Florida legislature authorized creation of multimodal transportation districts. It also directed FDOT to develop methods for the measurement of performances of various transportation modes to assist local governments with concurrency requirements for growth management. The "Highway Capacity Manual" (HCM) assessment of arterial LOS does not describe the quality of transportation service provided by the facility as much as it describes the quality of service provided to the through vehicle (automobile) users on the facility. Although this concept does address the primary mode of travel, it does not address the service that the arterial provides to other major potential modes (e.g., transit, walking, bicycling) or allow a multimodal LOS analysis. In the 2000 HCM, LOSs for pedestrians and bicyclists are essentially based on how crowded the respective modal facilities are. However, recent research on quality of service for pedestrians and bicyclists indicates that the most important factors are the lateral separation of the mode and motorized vehicle volume, speed, and type and frequency of transit service. FDOT's research has applied these models with planning-level assumptions.