Analysing the acceptance of autonomous buses in real-life traffic environments: pilot project with tourists in Malaga, Spain

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - europe, place - urban, mode - bus, mode - mass transit, ridership - attitudes, technology - intelligent transport systems


Autonomous vehicles, self-driving buses, public transport, adoption intention, passenger satisfaction, personality traits


Despite the significant technological progress with Autonomous Buses (ABs), there is still a limited understanding how users perceive and experience large, mass transit ABs in real-life traffic environments. This paper follows a pilot project on AB use by tourists in the city of Malaga, Spain. Discrete choice analysis was employed to study their willingness to use the AB and the passengers’ actual satisfaction on board the AB. The obtained results reveal higher willingness levels to adopt ABs among individuals more open to new technologies and more environmentally conscious. Higher levels of satisfaction on board are reported by older passengers, women, employed, private vehicle users, and people with environmental consciousness and openness to new technologies. Finally, the research discusses how socio-demographics and personality-related barriers affect the further implementation of autonomous mobility in public transportation systems, adding new reflections on the capacity of ABs to support or even replace conventional buses.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Taylor&Francis, copyright remains with them.