Exploring the factors that affect the defensive driving behavior of bus drivers: the application of TPB and PMT theories

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, ridership - behaviour, ridership - drivers, planning - surveys


Bus driver, Defensive driving behavior, Theory of planned behavior (TPB), Protection motivation theory (PMT), Integrated model


As early as 1948, defensive driving was accurately defined. Defensive driving was first promoted among professional drivers, and defensive driving training is still an important part of the regular training of professional drivers. The level of defensive driving is one of the standards for professional drivers (such as bus drivers). However, there is still a lack of quantitative evaluation methods for the defensive driving level of bus drivers. To fill this gap, the main purpose of this study was to compile a scale for assessing the defensive driving level of bus drivers, and to explore the influencing factors of the defensive driving behavior intention in bus drivers. Based on the definition of defensive driving, a defensive driving scale was compiled. Furthermore, a defensive driving intention scale was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and protective motivation theory to determine the factors affecting the defensive driving intention. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 312 bus drivers in a Chinese city. The results showed that the bus drivers generally reported a high defensive driving level and behavior intention. In addition, the results of the integrated model showed that attitude (β = 0.18) and utility susceptibility (β = 0.69) were positively correlated with behavior intention, while the response cost (β = − 0.18) was negatively correlated with behavior intention.


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