Literature Review on Problem Models and Solution Approaches for Managing Real-Time Passenger Train Operations: The Perspective of Train Operating Companies

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - rail, literature review - literature review, operations - scheduling, technology - intelligent transport systems


Integer programming, Mixed integer programming, Scheduling, Disruptions, Train operations


This study presents a comprehensive review of different problem models for managing railway operations by problem-type classification. Railway terminology was used to identify the studies that encompass the existing body of knowledge. The 28 articles analyzed showed that existing studies are focused on the individual schedule components, such as rolling stock, schedules, crews, and passengers. Few studies have adopted a broader scope by covering several of those components. Two of the most popular approaches include the integer linear program and the mixed integer linear program variant. The difference between them is that integer programming uses discrete decision-making variable data, while mixed integer programming also admits continuous variable data. In contrast, few studies involve combining computational algorithms with human knowledge-based approaches. This analysis reveals that the most significant variables for managing disruptive events are related to verifying suppressed circulation and the discrete events of real-time traffic, such as departures and arrivals at stations.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.