Why are Hanoi students giving up on bus ridership?

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - universities, mode - bus, planning - surveys, planning - environmental impact, planning - personal safety/crime, operations - reliability, ridership - behaviour, ridership - mode choice


Public transport, Buses, Student travel, Hanoi, Vietnam, Covid-19, Green technology


University students are regarded as a readily available market segment for public transport. In Hanoi, as elsewhere, they constitute a large portion of bus passengers. However, one portion has been quitting buses, and the reasons were so far unknown. Nor was it clear whether they planned on retuning. Through a survey of more than 800 students in seven higher education institutions, this study aimed to find the answers to these questions. The study revealed that bus ridership was determined by socio-demographic variables (year of studies, household income, employment status, motorcycle ownership), environmental variables (home-university distance), and psychological variables (convenience, bus staff behaviour, risk of sexual harassment, reliability and health, image and status). A negative disruptor such as the fear of Covid-19 infection had little effect on the decision to continue riding buses. Meanwhile, the prospect of riding ‘clean and green’ electric buses, which were introduced in a pilot program, was a positive disruptor that may lead a portion of students to return to public transport.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SpringerLink, copyright remains with them.