Exploring the attitudes and perceptions influencing user participation in gamification schemes for TDM

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, ridership - attitudes, ridership - behaviour, ridership - perceptions, planning - travel demand management, planning - surveys


Travel demand management (TDM), gamified design, attitudes, perceptions


Travel demand management (TDM) strategies and behaviour change initiatives aim to improve travel conditions by reducing or redistribute demand where the transport system is most congested. TDM strategies with gamified design can provide positive incentives in the form of playing a game and providing rewards. Gamified design has recently been implemented for TDM strategies in the public transport field with some success. However, before implementing a TDM strategy with a gamified design, it is critical to understand how participants or users value the proposed strategy. This study explores which attitudes and perceptions make a gamified scheme successful in attracting users to participate. This study surveyed 160 participants in Taipei City and used structural equation modelling (SEM) with an extended technology acceptance model (extended TAM) to identify which user attitudes and perceptions are critical to influence respondents' intention to join the gamified scheme. This study finds the key element of ‘to capture the fun and joy’ of the gamified scheme or perceived enjoyment is positively related to perceived ease of use that is key in convincing people to participate as being perceived as easy to use means the target demographic feels no burden in “giving it a try”. The results of this study may aid policy makers in designing gamification schemes that are more tailored for the specific purpose and thus more effective.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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