Aberrant Driving Behavior Prediction for Urban Bus Drivers in Taiwan Using Heart Rate Variability and Various Machine Learning Approaches: A Pilot Study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, place - asia, place - urban, ridership - drivers, ridership - behaviour


human factors of vehicles, naturalistic data studies, public transportation, bus operator safety, modeling and forecasting


Objective: Aberrant driving behavior (ADB) decreases road safety and is particularly relevant for urban bus drivers, who are required to drive daily shifts of considerable duration. Although numerous frameworks based on human physiological features have been applied to predict ADB, the research remains at an early stage. This study used heart rate variability (HRV) parameters to establish ADB occurrence prediction models with various machine learning approaches. Methods: Twelve Taiwanese urban bus drivers were recruited for four consecutive days of naturalistic driving data collection (from their routine routes) between March and April 2020; driving behaviors and physiological signals were obtained from provided devices. Weather and traffic congestion information was determined from public data, while sleep quality and professional driving experience were self-reported. To develop the ADB prediction model, several machine learning models—logistic regression, random forest, naive Bayes, support vector machine, and gated recurrent unit (GRU)—were trained and 10-fold cross-validated by using the testing data. Results: Most drivers with ADB reported deficient sleep quality (≤80%), with significantly higher mean scores on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and driver behavior questionnaire subcategory of lapses and errors than drivers without ADB. Next, HRV indices significantly differed between the measurement of a pre-ADB event and a baseline. The accuracy of the GRU models ranged from 78.84% ± 1.49% to 89.57% ± 1.31%. Conclusion: Drivers with ADB tend to have inadequate sleep quality, which may increase their fatigue levels and impair driving performance. The established time-series models can be considered for ADB occurrence prediction among urban bus drivers.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.