Integrated optimization of electric bus scheduling and charging planning incorporating flexible charging and timetable shifting strategies

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - maintainance, operations - scheduling, economics - operating costs, technology - alternative fuels, planning - methods


Bus scheduling, Charging planning, Timetable shifting, Peak power demand, Battery degradation


In a battery electric bus (BEB) network, buses are scheduled to perform timetabled trips while satisfying time, energy consumption, charging, and operational constraints. Increasing research efforts have been dedicated to the integrated optimization of multiple planning tasks to reduce system costs. At a high integration level, this study determines the BEB scheduling and charging planning with flexible charging and timetable shifting strategies. We first formulate an integrated arc-based model to minimize the total costs considering the power grid pressure cost and subsequently reformulate it into a two-stage model, for which we develop an effective solution method. The first stage minimizes the total operational costs including the fleet, charging, and battery degradation costs based on the column generation technique, and the second stage minimizes the peak power demand through two timetable shifting strategies. It is found through numerical experiments that the proposed integrated optimization model and solution method can achieve significant improvement in the utilization rate and reductions in the fleet size, operational costs, and peak power demand compared to the two baseline models.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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