Impacts of electric fleet charging patterns under different solar power penetration levels: Hourly grid variations and operating emissions

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

place - asia, place - urban, mode - bus, infrastructure - vehicle, infrastructure - fleet management, infrastructure - maintainance, planning - environmental impact, planning - methods, technology - emissions


Electric vehicles (EVs), emissions


Electric vehicles (EVs) are a critical solution to the fight against transport-related emissions. With the goal of achieving a net-zero future, the deployment of electric urban buses has increased rapidly. This study selects bus fleets in Taiwan as a case study, quantifying their environmental impacts considering the high temporal and spatial variability of the power grid. We explore the operating emissions of charging patterns under different penetrations of solar power. The results show that, with the current 2021 power grid structure, daytime charging produces 3.14% fewer carbon emissions than overnight charging, and this reduction will increase to 24% as the target for solar power installations is achieved. We also examine the effects of charging patterns on air pollutant emissions. Through the integration of economic analysis, this study reports on the existence of a trade-off between emissions and costs for fleet operators opting for daytime charging.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part D Home Page: