A path-based incentive scheme toward de-carbonized trips in a bi-modal traffic network

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - car, mode - subway/metro, planning - travel demand management, planning - methods, policy - congestion, policy - fares, policy - environment, technology - emissions


travel demand management (TDM), congestion, emissions


This study proposes an innovative travel demand management (TDM) scheme of path-based incentives to relieve congestion and reduce carbon emissions in a bi-modal network of road traffic and subway. The path-differentiated incentive is rewarded to travelers in the form of subway credits, which can be exchanged for free subway tickets. Thus, the scheme can potentially ameliorate road traffic distribution and meanwhile attract travelers to take the subway. We thereby establish user equilibrium (UE) model in the bi-modal network and solve it via a Frank–Wolfe-type algorithm. Furthermore, a sensitivity-analysis-based (SAB) method is adopted to design the incentive scheme under a given budget. Numerical results demonstrate that with a limited credit budget, the incentive scheme can significantly reduce total travel cost and carbon emissions in the traffic system. Finally, a day-to-day microscopic simulation based on real data validates the robustness of the proposed scheme in a time-variant traffic system with strong randomness.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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