Travel impedance, the built environment, and customized-bus ridership: A stop-to-stop level analysis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, infrastructure - stop, planning - route design, land use - impacts, ridership - demand


Customized buses (CBs), performance, ridership


Customized buses (CBs) are a complementary but essential component of the public transit system and have gained increasing popularity. However, knowledge remains limited regarding how CB service performs and what factors significantly influence the performance, particularly at a stop-to-stop level. By utilizing over two years of CB subscription data from Shanghai, we applied both the multiplicative model and the XGBoost model to identify key determinants of CB ridership and to examine nonlinear associations at a stop-to-stop level. The results suggest that: (1) travel impedance and the built environment, especially distance to the nearest metro station and distance to the city center, are significant predictors of CB ridership; (2) the effects of the built environment are nonlinear and vary by side of stop and time of day. The findings assist CB providers and policymakers in identifying appropriate market niches and areas with the greatest potential for allocating stops and designing routes.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


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