Machine Learning Applied to Public Transportation by Bus: A Systematic Literature Review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, literature review - literature review, technology - passenger information, operations - reliability


data and data science, artificial intelligence and advanced computing applications, machine learning (artificial intelligence), public transportation, bus transit systems, buses, innovative public transportation services and technologies


Machine learning (ML) solutions have been proposed to make public transportation more attractive. Works that employ ML in bus transportation focus on various problems, such as travel time prediction or passenger flow prediction. These solutions look to improve elements of transportation services, such as the availability of information on passengers’ travel time and the reliability and regularity of the service. An analysis of the solutions proposed in the literature for public transportation by bus can reveal opportunities for data scientists and transportation professionals, and highlight problems that have been only slightly explored. In addition, mapping information about modeling these solutions (e.g., types of data produced by devices on the transportation network, which can be used in modeling a solution) could help beginner data scientists develop public transportation solutions. Transportation professionals can benefit from an overview of possible transportation solutions to improve transportation problems and direct government agency efforts to implement these solutions. This paper presents a survey of ML-based solutions for public bus transportation and details the modeling of these solutions (e.g., data types, ML algorithms). In addition, the problems tackled in the literature are categorized into four themes, and the solutions proposed to deal with them are schematized, highlighting problems that are little explored.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by SAGE, copyright remains with them.