Double-battery configuration method for electric bus operation in cold regions

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Subject Area

mode - bus, economics - operating costs, technology - emissions, infrastructure - fleet management, operations - reliability, operations - scheduling


Carbon emissions, Cold region, Double-battery configuration, Electric bus, Operating costs, Scheduling plan


Managing the energy supply of electric buses (EBs) is critical to balance operational reliability and cost reduction. However, ambient temperature significantly affects energy consumption, posing challenges in providing adequate energy supply, especially in cold regions. In this study, we propose a double-battery configuration approach for EBs operating in cold regions with substantial temperature variations between seasons. The method involves utilizing a higher-capacity battery during winter months and a lower-capacity battery for summer operations. To determine the optimal fleet size, battery capacities, and EB scheduling plans in both winter and summer seasons, we formulate an integer programming model, focusing on minimizing the fleet's average annual operating costs (OC) and carbon emissions (CE). The model is solved using the branch and bound method. A case study is conducted, examining EB routes in 11 cold cities. Results reveal that the double-battery configuration method effectively reduces the fleet's average annual OC and CE. Specifically, the reduction ratio range for OC is from 3.34% to 5.18%, while the reduction ratio for CE ranges from 4.06% to 5.16%.


Permission to publish the abstract has been given by Elsevier, copyright remains with them.


Transportation Research Part E Home Page: